Pharmaceutical labeling, also known as drug labeling or prescription labeling, refers to the written, printed, or graphic information displayed on drugs or their containers, as well as the accompanying materials. The primary purpose of drug labeling is to identify the contents of the drug and provide specific instructions and warnings regarding its administration, storage, and disposal.
The development of drug labeling has evolved over time due to the need for fair trade practices, identification of toxins, and public health awareness. Different countries and regions may have varying requirements for drug labeling, influenced by their healthcare systems, incidents involving drugs, and commercial considerations. Despite advancements in drug labeling, medication errors can still occur due to inadequate label formatting.
Drug labeling regulations have undergone significant development over the years. In the United States, early regulations on food and drug quality were driven by competition between entrepreneurs, and drug labeling was not legally required until 1966. The Food and Drugs Act in 1906 outlawed the sale of mislabeled, tainted, or adulterated food, beverages, and drugs. The Sherley Amendment was later introduced to prohibit false medical claims on drug labels.
In 1950, the U.S. Court of Appeals ruling mandated the listing of drug indications on labels. The thalidomide tragedy in Europe in 1962, which caused thousands of birth defects, highlighted the need for a drug's safety profile before commercialization. As a result, the Fair Packaging and Labeling Act of 1966 required drug labels to include known medical facts.
In recent years, drug labeling has experienced dynamic changes that focus more on patient-centered and individualized approaches, thanks to advancements in clinical evidence development. The introduction of population pharmacokinetics (PPK) in drug labeling in 1999 emphasized the significance of individualized dosing based on factors such as age, gender, concurrent medication, and disease state. This approach became widespread, particularly for drugs with a narrow therapeutic index, such as anti-cancer and anti-infective medications. In 2004, the use of cox-2 inhibitors was discouraged due to increased risks of stroke and heart attack with prolonged use. This prompted the inclusion of a precaution section in drug labels.
Pharmaceutical labels are required on any retail item containing a drug. This includes products such as over-the-counter medications and prescription drugs. Many other products fall into pharmaceutical labeling requirements, for example: anti-cavity toothpaste, rubbing alcohol, sunscreen, sunscreen-containing cosmetics and hand sanitizer.
Drug labeling serves crucial roles in identifying the active ingredients and excipients of a drug and providing guidance to ensure patient safety and appropriate medication administration. For patients, drug labeling acknowledges their right to information and enables them to use medication effectively. Healthcare practitioners rely on drug labeling to obtain essential information for prescribing and dispensing medications. For example, pharmacists can identify drug-related problems during patient admission by referring to accompanying drug packages.
Different countries and regions have specific requirements for drug labeling due to past drug incidents and concerns for public health. In the United States, drug labeling regulations outlined in Title 21 of the Code of Federal Regulations require the prominent display of the drug's name, components, and manufacturer's information on the label. Adequate directions for use, including dosage, timing, and route of administration, must also be provided. The expiry date should be clearly indicated on both the immediate container and outer package. Specific requirements exist for over-the-counter (OTC) drugs, including warnings for use during pregnancy or breastfeeding.
The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has strict guidelines regarding the proper design of pharmaceutical and nutraceutical labels. Until 2002, there was no clear guideline on the placement and legibility of information for drug product packaging, which made it easy for users to miss important information, including dosages, warnings and side effects. The FDA found this as a major problem, especially for older people (who account for about 30% of over-the-counter drug sales), and in 2002, label requirements were established with only minor updates occurring since then.
These regulations helped to standardize label format and statement language, making pharmaceutical packaging and product information easier to read and understand. To meet today’s FDA regulations, labeling information on drugs must include the following in this order:
All drug products must be registered with the FDA, have a National Drug Code (NDC), and have that three-section NDC code printed on the front of the label.
Once product labels are printed, they should be thoroughly inspected for consistency and accuracy. Additionally, the manufacturer should have quality control measures in place to prevent the wrong label from being paired with the wrong product.
Pharmaceutical labeling, also known as drug labeling or prescription labeling, plays a vital role in providing information about drugs to ensure patient safety and proper medication administration. It includes written, printed, or graphic details displayed on drug containers, accompanying materials, and drug facts tables.
Drug labeling serves to identify drug contents, offer guidance, and enable patients to use medication effectively. It also aids healthcare practitioners in prescribing and dispensing medications. Different countries and regions have specific requirements for drug labeling influenced by healthcare systems, past incidents, and commercial considerations.